KaziFakirMohammed , VinitNimkar, SushoptiGawde
E-learning as we know it has been around for ten years or so. During that time, it has emerged from being a radical idea---the effectiveness of which was yet to be proven---to something that is widely regarded as mainstream. It's the core to numerous business plans and a service offered by most colleges and universities. When we think of learning content today, we probably think of a learning object. Originating in the world of computer-based delivery (CBT) systems, learning objects were depicted as being like lego blocks or atoms, little bits of content that could be put together or organized. Standards bodies have refined the concept of learning objects into a rigorous form and have provided specifications on how to sequence and organize these bits of content into courses and package them for delivery as though they were books or training manuals. E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It can be self-paced, asynchronous learning or may be instructor-led, synchronous learning. E-learning is suited to distance learning and flexible learning, but it can also be used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching, in which case the term blended learning is commonly used. Acknowledging the important relation between individual differences and education has very long history. However, simply acknowledging versus systematically testing this relation are two quite different things. Together with Lee Cronbach, Dick Snow formalized this interaction, consequently revolutionizing the thinking and researching of human abilities in the 1970s. Snow’s primary research agenda focused on how individual differences in aptitudes played out in different educational settings. This receive worldwide attention in the classic book on aptitude–treatment interactions (ATIs; Cronbach& Snow, 1977). Snow was steadfast in his belief that the psychology of human differences is fundamental to education. He also acknowledged that designers of policy and practice often ignore the lessons of differential psychology by trying to impose a “one-size-fits-all” solution even though individuals are different. His work sought to change that fact—to promote educational improvement for all. This quest, across the years, has been joined by scores of supporters who have been motivated by him, either directly—as students and colleagues—or indirectly— through his writings. The first author of this article was fortunate to have had both direct and indirect Snow influences for almost 2 decades. And his influence continues, currently manifest in a research an
 Adaptive E-Learning Valerie Shute Educational Testing Service Princeton, NJ Brendon Towle Thomson NETg Naperville, IL EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST, 38(2), 105–114
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